Enver Pasha

Ottoman Empire
1908 – 1918
Military Dictator
Enver Pasha
1315 (1899) P.-4[1]
Ismail Enver
Birth name Ismail Enver
Born (1881-11-22)22 November 1881
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died 4 August 1922(1922-08-04) (aged 40)
Turkestan, RSFSR (present-day Tajikistan)
Allegiance  Ottoman Empire
Rank Birinci Ferik
Minister of War
Unit Third Army
Battles/wars Italo-Turkish War
Balkan Wars
Battle of Sarikamish
Basmachi Revolt
World War I
Other work Revolutionary

Enver Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: انور پاشا‎; Turkish: Enver Paşa) or Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا‎; İsmail Enver Paşa) (born Ismail Enver; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, and is seen as one of the principal orchestrators of the Armenian Genocide and the Assyrian Genocide. He was the main leader of the Ottoman Empire in both Balkan Wars and World War I. Throughout his career, he was known by increasingly elevated titles as he rose through military ranks, including Enver Efendi (انور افندي‎), Enver Bey (انور بك‎), and finally Enver Pasha, "Pasha" being the epithet Ottoman military officers gained after they were promoted to the rank of Mirliva.

After the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, Enver Pasha became the Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire, forming one-third of the military triumvirate known as the "Three Pashas" (along with Talaat Pasha and Djemal Pasha) that held de facto rule over the Empire from 1913 until the end of the War in 1918. As war minister and de facto Commander-in-Chief (despite only being the de jure Deputy Commander-in-Chief, as the Sultan formally held the title), Enver Pasha was considered to be the most powerful figure of the government of the Ottoman Empire—"the number one man in Istanbul", as many referred to him. At home he was hailed as "the hero of the revolution", Germans were speaking of Turkey as "Enverland", and the British referred to him as "the one whose power was absolute and ambitions were grandiose".
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