Omar al-Bashir

Sudan
1989 – present
Still Alive
National Congress
Omar al-Bashir
عمر البشير
Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg
Omar al-Bashir
7th President of Sudan
Incumbent
Assumed office
30 June 1989
Vice President Zubair Mohamed Salih
Ali Osman Taha
John Garang
Salva Kiir Mayardit
Ali Osman Taha
Bakri Hassan Salih
Preceded by Ahmed al-Mirghani
Personal details
Born Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir
(1944-01-01) 1 January 1944 (age 70)
Hosh Bannaga, Sudan
Political party National Congress
Spouse(s) Fatima Khalid
Widad Babiker Omer
Alma mater Egyptian Military Academy
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Allegiance  Sudan
 Egypt
Service/branch Sudanese Army
Egyptian Army
Years of service 1960–2013
Rank  Sudan: Field Marshal
Battles/wars First Sudanese Civil War
Yom Kippur War
Second Sudanese Civil War

Field Marshal Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن أحمد البشير‎; born 1 January 1944) is the President of Sudan and the head of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when, as a brigadier in the Sudanese army, he led a group of officers in a bloodless military coup that ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi [1] when the country was at the risk of entering a countrywide famine. Since then he has been elected three times as President.

Major projects achieved include the construction of the Merowe Dam; the heightening and lengthening of the Roseires Dam; large expansion in electricity generation; the construction of five new bridges across the River Nile; the construction of a relatively large number of highways and roads compared to previous presidents; drilling oil and building oil refineries and oil pipes; the establishment of 36 new universities; major improvements and expansions in domestic water pipelines and services; the building of an automobile manufacturing industry (Giad Auto); the building of an aircraft manufacturing industry (SAFATAVIA[2]);[3][not in citation given] introducing a legal system based on Sharia law; and negotiating a peace agreement with the South.[4][5][6][6][7][8][9]

In October 2005, al-Bashir's government negotiated an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War, one of the longest-running and deadliest wars of the 20th century, by granting limited autonomy to Southern Sudan dominated by the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA).[10] Later on a referendum took place in the South which resulted in the separation of the south into the separate country of South Sudan. In the Darfur region, which has a history of violence between farmers and shepherds for centuries due to the scarcity of water and green land, there has been a violent conflict in Darfur fueled by neighboring countries Chad and Libya. Chad has related crossover tribes, while in Libya, Muammar Gaddafi hosted and supported the rebels. This has resulted in death tolls that are 10,000 according to the Sudanese Government [11] but some suggest between 200,000[12] and 400,000.[13][14][15] During his presidency, there have been several violent struggles between the Janjaweed militia and rebel groups such as the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in the form of guerrilla warfare in the Darfur region. The civil war has displaced[16] over 2.5 million people out of a total population of 6.2 million in Darfur[17] and has created a crisis in the diplomatic relations between Sudan and Chad.[18] The Sudanese-Chadian relationship improved dramatically after Chadian President Idriss Déby visited Khartoum in 2010 and Chad kicked out the Darfuri rebels it had previously supported and a joint military border patrol was established.[19] The rebels in Darfur lost the support from Libya after the death of Muammar Gaddafi and the collapse of his regime in 2011.[20][21][22]

Despite the fact that Sudan is not a State party to the Rome Statute, in July 2008 the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, accused al-Bashir of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur.[23] By the end of 2008, the Court had granted victim participation rights to just eleven Sudanese, as opposed to 171 Congolese and 57 Ugandans, and not a single case for witness protection on behalf of Darfurians had been presented to the judges.[24] The court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on 4 March 2009 on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute him for genocide.[25][26] However, on 12 July 2010, the Court issued a second warrant containing three separate counts. The new warrant, as with the first, were delivered to the Sudanese government, which did not recognize it nor the ICC.[26] Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state indicted by the ICC.[26] The indictments do not allege that Bashir personally took part in such activities. Instead, they say, he is "suspected of being criminally responsible, as an indirect co-perpetrator".[27] International experts think it is unlikely that Ocampo has enough evidence.[28] The court's decision is opposed by the African Union, League of Arab States, Non-Aligned Movement, and the governments of Russia and China.[29][30] A leak from WikiLeaks allegedly reveals that the Sudanese president had embezzled state funds amounting to US$ 9 billion, to which Lloyds Bank of England later rejected as "Lloyds insisted it was not aware of any link with Bashir while a Sudanese government spokesman said that the claim that the president had taken the cash was "ludicrous" and attacked the motives of the prosecutor."[31] In an interview with the Guardian Al Bashir Said referring to ICC Prosecuter Ocampo "The biggest lie was when he said I have $9bn in one of the British banks, and thank God, the British bank and the [British] finance minister … denied these allegations."[27] The arrest warrant has actively increased public support for al-Bashir in Sudan.[32]
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