Nicholas II of Russia

England
1894 – 1917
1918, Execution
Monarchy
Nicholas II
Nicolas II photographie couleur.jpg
Portrait photograph by Guy de Rambaud
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894 – 15 March 1917
Coronation 26 May [O.S. 14 May] 1896[1]
Predecessor Alexander III
Successor Monarchy abolished
De facto :
Georgy Lvov (chairman of the provisional government)
Spouse Alix of Hesse
Issue
Full name
Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov
House House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Alexander III of Russia
Mother Maria Feodorovna
(Dagmar of Denmark)
Born 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868
Tsarskoye Selo, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, Alexander Palace
Died 17 July 1918(1918-07-17) (aged 50)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Burial 17 July 1998
Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Signature
Religion Russian Orthodox

Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolay II, Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj əlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.[2] His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russia.[3] As with other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar (though Russia formally ended the Tsardom in 1721). He is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and has been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.

Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 2 March 1917.[4] His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Enemies nicknamed him Bloody Nicholas because of the Khodynka Tragedy, the anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of 1905 Revolution, his execution of political opponents[citation needed], and his pursuit of military campaigns on a hitherto unprecedented scale.

Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, including the almost total annihilation of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. As head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the beginning of Russia's involvement in World War I, a war in which 3.3 million Russians were killed.[5] The Imperial Army's severe losses and the monarchy's incompetent handling of the war, along with other policies directed by Nicholas during his reign, are often cited as the leading causes of the fall of the Romanov dynasty.

Nicholas II abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917 during which he and his family were imprisoned first in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, then later in the Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk, and finally at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. In the spring of 1918, Nicholas was handed over to the local ural soviet by commissar Vasili Yakovlev who was then presented with a written receipt as Nicholas was formerly handed over like a parcel. [6]Nicholas II; his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna; his son, Alexei Nikolaevich; his four daughters (Olga Nikolaevna, Tatiana Nikolaevna, Maria Nikolaevna and Anastasia Nikolaevna); the family's medical doctor, Evgeny Botkin; the Emperor's footman, Alexei Trupp; the Empress' maidservant, Anna Demidova; and the family's cook, Ivan Kharitonov were executed in the same room by the Bolsheviks on the night of 16/17 July 1918. This led to the canonization of Nicholas II, his wife the Empress Alexandra and their children as passion bearers, a category used to identify believers who, in imitation of Christ, endured suffering and death at the hands of political enemies, on 15 August 2000[7] by the Russian Orthodox Church within Russia and, in 1981, as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, located in New York City.[8]

By adjusting his $900 million wealth to account for inflation, the Tsar’s net worth was by modern equivalents around $300 billion, making him one of the richest people in human history.[9]
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