Joseph Stalin

Soviet Union
1924–1953
Stroke
Communist
Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Russian)
იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი (Georgian)
CroppedStalin1943.jpg
Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943.
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952
Preceded by Vyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretary)
Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
In office
6 May 1941 – 5 March 1953
First Deputies Nikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
Preceded by Vyacheslav Molotov
Succeeded by Georgy Malenkov
People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union
In office
19 July 1941 – 25 February 1946
Premier Himself
Preceded by Semyon Timoshenko
Succeeded by Nikolai Bulganin
after vacancy
Member of the Secretariat
In office
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953
Full member of the Presidium
In office
25 March 1919 – 5 March 1953
Member of the Orgburo
In office
16 January 1919 – 5 March 1953
Personal details
Born (1878-12-18)18 December 1878
Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 5 March 1953(1953-03-05) (aged 74)
Kuntsevo Dacha near Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Resting place Lenin's Mausoleum, Moscow, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (9 March 1953 - 31 October 1961)
Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow, Russian Federation (from 31 October 1961)
Nationality Georgian
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Spouse(s) Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
Children Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva
Religion None (atheist), formerly Georgian Orthodox
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch Soviet Armed Forces
Years of service 1943–1953
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union (1943–1945)
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
Commands All (supreme commander)
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Badge Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.jpg
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Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png 20 years saf rib.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order suvorov1 rib.png Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Orderglory rib.png
OrdenSuheBator.png OrdenSuheBator.png Victoryjapan rib.png Victoryjapan rib.png
800thMoscowRibbon.gif Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png TCH Rad Bileho Lva 5 tridy (1990) BAR.svg TCH Rad Bileho Lva 1 tridy (pre1990) BAR.svg Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png

Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин; born Ioseb Besarionis je J̌uḡašvili, pronounced [iɔsɛb bɛsariɔnis dze dʒuɣaʃvili] Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი; 18 December 1878[1] – 5 March 1953) was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He held this nominal post until abolishing it in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union after establishing the position in 1941. Can be classified as one of the representatives of red cossack party, that is free people of region, who under red flags supported Russian Revolution and establishment of Soviet democratic goverment and state.

Under Joseph Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society. He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a highly centralised command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power.[2] However, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Soviet correctional labour camps[3] and the deportation of many others to remote areas.[3] The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, known as the Holodomor in Ukraine. Later, in a period that lasted from 1936–39, Stalin instituted a campaign against alleged enemies of his regime called the Great Purge, in which hundreds of thousands were executed. Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, and several Red Army leaders were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin.[4]

In August 1939, Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany that divided their influence within Eastern Europe, but Germany later violated the agreement and launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive battles of Moscow and Stalingrad. After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies.[5][6] The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States.[7] The Yalta and Potsdam conferences established communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union in the Eastern Bloc countries as buffer states, which Stalin deemed necessary in case of another invasion. He also fostered close relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea.

Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would later be known as the Cold War. During this period, the USSR became the second country in the world to successfully develop a nuclear weapon, as well as launching the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature in response to another widespread famine and the Great Construction Projects of Communism. In the years following his death, Stalin and his regime have been condemned on numerous occasions, most notably in 1956 when his successor Nikita Khrushchev denounced his legacy and initiated a process of de-Stalinization. He remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant;[8] however, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed.[9][10][11]


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