Adolf Hitler

Germany
1933–1945
Suicide by gunshot, 1945
NAZI (Socialist)
Adolf Hitler
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S33882, Adolf Hitler retouched.jpg
Hitler in 1937
Führer of Germany
In office
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg
(as President)
Succeeded by Karl Dönitz
(as President)
Chancellor of Germany
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
President Paul von Hindenburg
Deputy
Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher
Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels
Reichsstatthalter of Prussia
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 January 1935
Prime Minister
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Office abolished
Personal details
Born (1889-04-20)20 April 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary
Died 30 April 1945(1945-04-30) (aged 56)
Berlin, Germany
Nationality
  • Austrian citizen until 7 April 1925[1]
  • German citizen after 25 February 1932
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (1921–1945)
Other political
affiliations
German Workers' Party (1920–1921)
Spouse(s) Eva Braun
(29–30 April 1945)
Occupation Politician, soldier, artist, writer
Religion See: Religious views of Adolf Hitler
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  German Empire
Service/branch Reichsheer
Years of service 1914–1918
Rank Gefreiter
Unit 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
Battles/wars World War I
Awards

Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.

Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party (precursor of the NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état in Munich, known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, antisemitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. After his appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism.

Hitler's aim was to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. To this end, his foreign and domestic policies had the aim of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Germanic people. He directed the rearmament of Germany and the invasion of Poland by the Wehrmacht in September 1939, resulting in the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Under Hitler's rule, in 1941 German forces and their European allies occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In 1943, Germany had been forced onto the defensive and suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time partner, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned.

Hitler's aggressive foreign policy is considered the main cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. His antisemitic policies and racially motivated ideology resulted in the deaths of at least 5.5 million Jews, and millions of other people deemed racially inferior.
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